Friday, September 4, 2020

Python Tkinter Text Widget



Hello dear readers! welcome back to another section of my tutorial on Python. In this tutorial post, we are going to be discussing about the Tkinter Text Widget.

The Python Tkinter Text widget provides advance capabilities that allows you to edit a multiline text and format the way that it has to be displayed, such as changing the color and font.

You can use elegant structures like the tags and marks for locating specific sections of the text, and then applying changes to those areas. Additionally you could as well embed Windows and images in the text because this widget was designed to handle both plain text and formatted text.

Syntax

The following below is the syntax for create this widget -

w = Text ( master, option=value, ... )

Parameter Details

  • master - This represents the parent window.
  • options - Following below is the list of commonly used options for this widget. These options can be used as key-value pairs that are separated by commas.


Sr.No.Option & Description
1
bg
The default background color of the text widget.
2
bd
The width of the border around the text widget. Default is 2 pixels.
3
cursor
The cursor that will appear when the mouse is over the text widget.
4
exportselection
Normally, text selected within a text widget is exported to be the selection in the window manager. Set exportselection=0 if you don't want that behavior.
5
font
The default font for text inserted into the widget.
6
fg
The color used for text (and bitmaps) within the widget. You can change the color for tagged regions; this option is just the default.
7
height
The height of the widget in lines (not pixels!), measured according to the current font size.
8
highlightbackground
The color of the focus highlight when the text widget does not have focus.
9
highlightcolor
The color of the focus highlight when the text widget has the focus.
10
highlightthickness
The thickness of the focus highlight. Default is 1. Set highlightthickness=0 to suppress display of the focus highlight.
11
insertbackground
The color of the insertion cursor. Default is black.
12
insertborderwidth
Size of the 3-D border around the insertion cursor. Default is 0.
13
insertofftime
The number of milliseconds the insertion cursor is off during its blink cycle. Set this option to zero to suppress blinking. Default is 300.
14
insertontime
The number of milliseconds the insertion cursor is on during its blink cycle. Default is 600.
15
insertwidth
Width of the insertion cursor (its height is determined by the tallest item in its line). Default is 2 pixels.
16
padx
The size of the internal padding added to the left and right of the text area. Default is one pixel.
17
pady
The size of the internal padding added above and below the text area. Default is one pixel.
18
relief
The 3-D appearance of the text widget. Default is relief=SUNKEN.
19
selectbackground
The background color to use displaying selected text.
20
selectborderwidth
The width of the border to use around selected text.
21
spacing1
This option specifies how much extra vertical space is put above each line of text. If a line wraps, this space is added only before the first line it occupies on the display. Default is 0.
22
spacing2
This option specifies how much extra vertical space to add between displayed lines of text when a logical line wraps. Default is 0.
23
spacing3
This option specifies how much extra vertical space is added below each line of text. If a line wraps, this space is added only after the last line it occupies on the display. Default is 0.
24
state
Normally, text widgets respond to keyboard and mouse events; set state=NORMAL to get this behavior. If you set state=DISABLED, the text widget will not respond, and you won't be able to modify its contents programmatically either.
25
tabs
This option controls how tab characters position text.
26
width
The width of the widget in characters (not pixels!), measured according to the current font size.
27
wrap
This option controls the display of lines that are too wide. Set wrap=WORD and it will break the line after the last word that will fit. With the default behavior, wrap=CHAR, any line that gets too long will be broken at any character.
28
xscrollcommand
To make the text widget horizontally scrollable, set this option to the set() method of the horizontal scrollbar.
29
yscrollcommand
To make the text widget vertically scrollable, set this option to the set() method of the vertical scrollbar.


Methods

Following are the list of commonly used methods for this widget -

Sr.No.Methods & Description
1
delete(startindex [,endindex])
This method deletes a specific character or a range of text.
2
get(startindex [,endindex])
This method returns a specific character or a range of text.
3
index(index)
Returns the absolute value of an index based on the given index.
4
insert(index [,string]...)
This method inserts strings at the specified index location.
5
see(index)
This method returns true if the text located at the index position is visible.

The Text widget have support for three distinct structures: Marks, Tags, and Indexes -

Marks can be simply used to bookmark positions between two characters within a text. Following below are the methods available when dealing with marks -

Sr.No.Methods & Description
1
index(mark)
Returns the line and column location of a specific mark.
2
mark_gravity(mark [,gravity])
Returns the gravity of the given mark. If the second argument is provided, the gravity is set for the given mark.
3
mark_names()
Returns all marks from the Text widget.
4
mark_set(mark, index)
Informs a new position to the given mark.
5
mark_unset(mark)
Removes the given mark from the Text widget.

Tags are used to associate names to regions of text which makes the task of modifying the display settings of specific text areas so easy. Tags are also used to bind event callbacks to specific ranges of text.

Following below are the available methods for handling tags -

Sr.No.Methods & Description
1
tag_add(tagname, startindex[,endindex] ...)
This method tags either the position defined by startindex, or a range delimited by the positions startindex and endindex.
2
tag_config
You can use this method to configure the tag properties, which include, justify(center, left, or right), tabs(this property has the same functionality of the Text widget tabs's property), and underline(used to underline the tagged text).
3
tag_delete(tagname)
This method is used to delete and remove a given tag.
4
tag_remove(tagname [,startindex[.endindex]] ...)
After applying this method, the given tag is removed from the provided area without deleting the actual tag definition.

Example

Following is a simple example -

from Tkinter import *

def onclick():
   pass

root = Tk()
text = Text(root)
text.insert(INSERT, "Hello.....")
text.insert(END, "Bye Bye.....")
text.pack()

text.tag_add("here", "1.0", "1.4")
text.tag_add("start", "1.8", "1.13")
text.tag_config("here", background="yellow", foreground="blue")
text.tag_config("start", background="black", foreground="green")
root.mainloop()

Output
When the above code is executed, it will produce the following result -



Alright guys! This is where we are rounding up for this tutorial post. In my next tutorial, we are going to be discussing about the Python Tkinter Toplevel Widget.

Feel free to ask your questions where necessary and i will attend to them as soon as possible. If this tutorial was helpful to you, you can use the share button to share this tutorial.

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Thanks for reading and bye for now.
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