Friday, September 18, 2020

A Guide to PHP Operators



Hello dear readers! welcome back to another section of my tutorial on PHP. In this tutorial guide, we will be discussing about the PHP Operators.

What is an Operator?

An operator can be explained as a symbol that mostly represents an action or process. Am going to be using the expression 6 + 5 equal to 11 as an example. Here 6 and 5 are called operands and + is the operator. PHP has support for the following type of operators.

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Comparison Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Conditional Operator

Now let us look into these PHP supported operators one after the other.

RECOMMENDED: PHP Constants

Arithmetic Operators

The following are the Arithmetic Operators supported by PHP -

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then -

Read Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
+Adds two operandsA + B will give 30
-Subtracts second operand from the firstA - B will give -10
*Multiply both operandsA * B will give 200
/Divide numerator by de-numeratorB / A will give 2
%Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer divisionB % A will give 0
++Increment operator, increases integer value by oneA++ will give 11
--Decrement operator, decreases integer value by oneA-- will give 9


Comparison Operators

The following are the Comparison Operators supported by PHP -

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then -

Read Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
==Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true.(A == B) is not true.
!=Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true.(A != B) is true.
>Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.(A > B) is not true.
<Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.(A < B) is true.
>=Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.(A >= B) is not true.
<=Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.(A <= B) is true

RECOMMENDED: PHP Basic Syntax

Logical Operators

The following are the Logical Operators supported by PHP -

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then -

Read Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
andCalled Logical AND operator. If both the operands are true then condition becomes true.(A and B) is true.
orCalled Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero then condition becomes true.(A or B) is true.
&&Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non zero then condition becomes true.(A && B) is true.
||Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero then condition becomes true.(A || B) is true.
!Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false.!(A && B) is false.


Assignment Operators

The following are the Assignment Operators supported by PHP -

Read Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
=Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operandC = A + B will assign value of A + B into C
+=Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operandC += A is equivalent to C = C + A
-=Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operandC -= A is equivalent to C = C - A
*=Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operandC *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
/=Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operandC /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
%=Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operandC %= A is equivalent to C = C % A


Conditional (Ternary) Operator

There is one last operator called conditional operator. This first evaluates an expression for a true or false value, and executes one of the two given statements based on the result of the evaluation.

Read Examples

OperatorDescriptionExample
? :Conditional ExpressionIf Condition is true ? Then value X : Otherwise value Y

Operators Categories

All the operators that have been studied above can be grouped into the following categories -

  • The unary prefix operators - which precede only a single operand.
  • The binary operators - which take two operands and then perform series of arithmetic and logic operations.
  • The ternary operator - which collects three operands and evaluates either the second or third expression, based on the evaluation of the first expression.
  • The assignment operators - which assigns a value to a variable.

RECOMMENDED: PHP Local Variables


Operator Precedence and Associativity
The precedence of PHP operators decides the grouping of terms in an expression. It affects how an expression is evaluated.

Certain operators have a higher precedence than some others; for example, a multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator -

For example x = 10 + 3 * 2; Here x is assigned the value 16, and not 26 because the operator * has a higher precedence than + so it first get multiplied with 3*2 and then adds into 10.

Here operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, and those with lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, the higher precedence operators will be evaluated first.

CategoryOperatorAssociativity
Unary! ++ --Right to left
Multiplicative* / %Left to right
Additive+ -Left to right
Relational< <= > >=Left to right
Equality== !=Left to right
Logical AND&&Left to right
Logical OR||Left to right
Conditional?:Right to left
Assignment= += -= *= /= %=Right to left


Alright guys! This is where we are rounding up for this tutorial post. In my next tutorial post, we are going to be discussing about the Arithmetic Operators.

Feel free to ask your questions where necessary and i will attend to them as soon as possible. If this tutorial was helpful to you, you can use the share button to share this tutorial.

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Thanks for reading and bye for now.
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