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# Python Mathematical Functions with examples

Hello dear readers! Welcome back to another edition of our tutorial on Python. In this tutorial guide, we are going to be studying about the Python Mathematical Functions.

I will be explaining each of these functions that was listed in our previous tutorial in details with the help of an example. Now lets start with the abs() function.

# Python Number abs() Function

The Python number function abs() returns an absolute value of x - the positive distance between x and zero.

# Syntax

The following below is the syntax for abs() function -

`abs( x )`

# Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.

# Return Value

This function returns the absolute value of x.

# Example

The following example shows the usage of abs() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python

print "abs(-45) : ", abs(-45)
print "abs(100.12) : ", abs(100.12)
print "abs(119L) : ", abs(119L)```

# Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```abs(-45) :  45
abs(100.12) :  100.12
abs(119L) :  119```

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# Python Number ceil() Function

The Python number function ceil() returns the ceiling value of x - the smallest integer not less than x.

# Syntax

The following below is the syntax for ceil() function -

```import math

math.ceil( x )```

Note - This function is not directly accessible, so we need to import the math module and we need to call this function using math static object.

# Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.

# Return Value

This returns the smallest integer not less than x.

# Example

The following example shows the usage of ceil() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python
import math   # This will import math module

print "math.ceil(-45.17) : ", math.ceil(-45.17)
print "math.ceil(100.12) : ", math.ceil(100.12)
print "math.ceil(100.72) : ", math.ceil(100.72)
print "math.ceil(119L) : ", math.ceil(119L)
print "math.ceil(math.pi) : ", math.ceil(math.pi)```

# Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```math.ceil(-45.17) :  -45.0
math.ceil(100.12) :  101.0
math.ceil(100.72) :  101.0
math.ceil(119L) :  119.0
math.ceil(math.pi) : 4.0```

# Python Number cmp() Function

The number cmp() function return the sign of the difference of two numbers : -1 if x < y, 0 if x == y, or 1 if x > y.

# Syntax

The following below is the syntax for cmp() function -

`cmp( x, y )`

# Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.
• y - This is also a numeric value.

# Return Value

This function returns -1 if x < y, 0 if x == y, 1 if x > y.

# Example

The following example shows the usage of cmp() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python

print "cmp(80, 100) : ", cmp(80, 100)
print "cmp(180, 100) : ", cmp(180, 100)
print "cmp(-80, 100) : ", cmp(-80, 100)
print "cmp(80, -100) : ", cmp(80, -100)```

# Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```cmp(80, 100) :  -1
cmp(180, 100) :  1
cmp(-80, 100) :  -1
cmp(80, -100) :  1```

RECOMMENDED POST: Python Basic Syntax Tutorial

## Python Number exp() Function

Number function exp() returns the exponential of x ie. ex.

## Syntax

The following below is the syntax for exp() function -

```import math

math.exp( x )```

Note - This function is not directly accessible, so we need to import the math module and we need to call this function using math static object.

## Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.

## Return Value

This returns the exponential of x.

## Example

The following example shows the usage of exp() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python
import math   # This will import math module

print "math.exp(-45.17) : ", math.exp(-45.17)
print "math.exp(100.12) : ", math.exp(100.12)
print "math.exp(100.72) : ", math.exp(100.72)
print "math.exp(119L) : ", math.exp(119L)
print "math.exp(math.pi) : ", math.exp(math.pi)```

## Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```math.exp(-45.17) :  2.41500621326e-20
math.exp(100.12) :  3.03084361407e+43
math.exp(100.72) :  5.52255713025e+43
math.exp(119L) :  4.7978133273e+51
math.exp(math.pi) :  23.1406926328```

## Python Number fabs() Function

Python number function fabs() returns the absolute value of x.

## Syntax

The following below is the syntax for fabs() function -

```import math

math.fabs( x )```

Note - This function is not directly accessible, so we need to import the math module and then we need to call this function using math static object.

## Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.

## Return Value

This returns the absolute value of x.

## Example

The following example shows the usage of fabs() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python
import math   # This will import math module

print "math.fabs(-45.17) : ", math.fabs(-45.17)
print "math.fabs(100.12) : ", math.fabs(100.12)
print "math.fabs(100.72) : ", math.fabs(100.72)
print "math.fabs(119L) : ", math.fabs(119L)
print "math.fabs(math.pi) : ", math.fabs(math.pi)```

## Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```math.fabs(-45.17) :  45.17
math.fabs(100.12) :  100.12
math.fabs(100.72) :  100.72
math.fabs(119L) :  119.0
math.fabs(math.pi) :  3.14159265359```

## Python Number floor() Function

Python number function floor() returns the floor of x. The largest integer not greater than x.

## Syntax

The following below is the syntax for floor() function -

```import math

math.floor( x )```

Note - This function is not directly accessible, so we need to import the math module and then we need to call this function using math static object.

## Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.

## Return Value

This returns the largest integer not greater than x.

## Example

The following example shows the usage of floor() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python
import math   # This will import math module

print "math.floor(-45.17) : ", math.floor(-45.17)
print "math.floor(100.12) : ", math.floor(100.12)
print "math.floor(100.72) : ", math.floor(100.72)
print "math.floor(119L) : ", math.floor(119L)
print "math.floor(math.pi) : ", math.floor(math.pi)```

## Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```math.floor(-45.17) :  -46.0
math.floor(100.12) :  100.0
math.floor(100.72) :  100.0
math.floor(119L) :  119.0
math.floor(math.pi) :  3.0```

### Python Number log() Function

The Python number function log() returns the natural logarithm of x, for x > 0.

### Syntax

The following below is the syntax for log() function -

```import math

math.log( x )```

Note - This function is not directly accessible, so we need to import the math module and we need to call this function using math static object.

### Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.

### Return Value

This returns the natural logarithm of x, for x > 0.

### Example

The following example shows the usage of log() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python
import math   # This will import math module

print "math.log(100.12) : ", math.log(100.12)
print "math.log(100.72) : ", math.log(100.72)
print "math.log(119L) : ", math.log(119L)
print "math.log(math.pi) : ", math.log(math.pi)```

### Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```math.log(100.12) :  4.60636946656
math.log(100.72) :  4.61234438974
math.log(119L) :  4.77912349311
math.log(math.pi) :  1.14472988585```

### Python Number log10() Function

Python number function log10() returns the base-10 logarithm of x, for x > 0.

### Syntax

The following below is the syntax for log10() function -

```import math

math.log10( x )```

Note - This function is not directly accessible, so we need to import the math module and we need to call this function using math static object.

### Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.

### Return Value

This returns the base-10 logarithm of x, for x > 0.

### Example

The following example shows the usage of log10() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python
import math   # This will import math module

print "math.log10(100.12) : ", math.log10(100.12)
print "math.log10(100.72) : ", math.log10(100.72)
print "math.log10(119L) : ", math.log10(119L)
print "math.log10(math.pi) : ", math.log10(math.pi)```

### Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```math.log10(100.12) :  2.00052084094
math.log10(100.72) :  2.0031157171
math.log10(119L) :  2.07554696139
math.log10(math.pi) :  0.497149872694```

### Python Number max() Function

Python number function max() returns back the largest of its arguments. Value that is closest to positive infinity.

### Syntax

The following below is the syntax for max() function -

`max( x, y, z, ........ )`

### Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.
• y - This is also a numeric value.
• z - This is also a numeric value.

### Return Value

This function returns the largest of its arguments.

### Example

The following example shows the usage of max() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python

print "max(80, 100, 1000) : ", max(80, 100, 1000)
print "max(-20, 100, 400) : ", max(-20, 100, 400)
print "max(-80, -20, -10) : ", max(-80, -20, -10)
print "max(0, 100, -400) : ", max(0, 100, -400)```

### Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```max(80, 100, 1000) :  1000
max(-20, 100, 400) :  400
max(-80, -20, -10) :  -10
max(0, 100, -400) :  100```

#### Python Number min() Function

The Python number function min() returns back the smallest of its arguments. Value that is closest to negative infinity.

#### Syntax

The following below is the syntax for min() function -

`min( x, y, z, ........ )`

#### Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.
• y - This is also a numeric value.
• z - This is also a numeric value.

#### Return Value

This function returns the smallest of its arguments.

#### Example

The following example shows the usage of min() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python

print "min(80, 100, 1000) : ", min(80, 100, 1000)
print "min(-20, 100, 400) : ", min(-20, 100, 400)
print "min(-80, -20, -10) : ", min(-80, -20, -10)
print "min(0, 100, -400) : ", min(0, 100, -400)```

#### Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```min(80, 100, 1000) :  80
min(-20, 100, 400) :  -20
min(-80, -20, -10) :  -80
min(0, 100, -400) :  -400```

#### Python Number modf() Function

The Python number function modf() returns the fractional and has well as integer parts of x in a two-item tuple. Both parts has the same sign as x. The integer part is returned as a float.

#### Syntax

The following below is the syntax for modf() function -

```import math

math.modf( x )```

Note - This function is not directly accessible, so we need to import the math module and we need to call this function using math static object.

#### Parameter Values

• x - This is a numeric value.

#### Return Value

This function returns the fractional and integer parts of x in a two-item tuple.

#### Example

The following example shows the usage of modf() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python
import math   # This will import math module

print "math.modf(100.12) : ", math.modf(100.12)
print "math.modf(100.72) : ", math.modf(100.72)
print "math.modf(119L) : ", math.modf(119L)
print "math.modf(math.pi) : ", math.modf(math.pi)```

#### Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```math.modf(100.12) :  (0.12000000000000455, 100.0)
math.modf(100.72) :  (0.71999999999999886, 100.0)
math.modf(119L) :    (0.0, 119.0)
math.modf(math.pi) :  (0.14159265358979312, 3.0)```

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#### Python Number pow() Function

The Python number function pow() returns x to the power of y. If the third argument z is given, it returns x to the power of y modulus z.

#### Syntax

The following below is the syntax for pow() function -

```import math

math.pow( x, y[, z] )```

Note - This function is not directly accessible, so we need to import the math module and we need to call this function using math static object.

#### Parameter Values

• x - The number which is to be powered.
• y - The number which is to be powered with x.
• z - (Optional) The number which is to be used for the modulus operation.

#### Return Value

This returns the value of xy.

#### Example

The following example shows the usage of pow() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python
import math   # This will import math module

print "math.pow(100, 2) : ", math.pow(100, 2)
print "math.pow(100, -2) : ", math.pow(100, -2)
print "math.pow(2, 4) : ", math.pow(2, 4)
print "math.pow(3, 0) : ", math.pow(3, 0)```

#### Output

Below is the output of the above example -

```math.pow(100, 2) :  10000.0
math.pow(100, -2) :  0.0001
math.pow(2, 4) :  16.0
math.pow(3, 0) :  1.0```

##### Python Number round() Function
Python number function round() returns x rounded to n digits from the decimal point.

##### Syntax
The following below is the syntax for round() function -

`round( x, [, n] )`

##### Parameter Values
• x - The is a numerical value.
• n - The is also a numerical value.

##### Return Value
It returns x rounded to n digits from the decimal point.

##### Example
The following example shows the usage of round() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python

print "round(80.23456, 2) : ", round(80.23456, 2)
print "round(100.000056, 3) : ", round(100.000056, 3)
print "round(-100.000056, 3) : ", round(-100.000056, 3)```

##### Output
Below is the output of the above example -

```round(80.23456, 2) :  80.23
round(100.000056, 3) :  100.0
round(-100.000056, 3) :  -100.0```

##### Python Number sqrt() Function
The Python number function sqrt() returns the square root of x for x > 0.
##### Syntax
The following below is the syntax for pow() function -

```import math

math.sqrt( x )```

Note - This function is not directly accessible, so we need to import the math module and we need to call this function using math static object.

##### Parameter Values
• x - This is a numerical value.

##### Return Value
This returns the square root of x for x > 0.

##### Example
The following example shows the usage of sqrt() function -

```#!/usr/bin/python
import math   # This will import math module

print "math.sqrt(100) : ", math.sqrt(100)
print "math.sqrt(7) : ", math.sqrt(7)
print "math.sqrt(math.pi) : ", math.sqrt(math.pi)```

##### Output
Below is the output of the above example -

```math.sqrt(100) :  10.0
math.sqrt(7) :  2.64575131106
math.sqrt(math.pi) :  1.77245385091```

Alright guys! This is where we are rounding up for this tutorial post. In our next tutorial, we are going to be discussing about the Python Random Number Functions.

Feel free to ask your questions where necessary and i will attend to them as soon as possible. If this tutorial was helpful to you, you can use the share button to share this tutorial.

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